They also live in the aspen parklands north of Calgary and Edmonton, where they share habitat with the moose.The adjacent Great Plains grassland habitats are left to herds of elk, American bison, and pronghorn antelope.
Europe, in comparison, has lower diversity in plant and animal species.Additionally, access to adjacent croplands may also benefit deer.However, adequate forest or brush cover must still be provided for populations to grow and thrive.Huemul deer (taruca and Chilean huemul) of South America's Andes fill the ecological niches of the ibex and wild goat, with the fawns behaving more like goat kids.The highest concentration of large deer species in temperate North America lies in the Canadian Rocky Mountain and Columbia Mountain regions between Alberta and British Columbia where all five North American deer species (white-tailed deer, mule deer, caribou, elk, and moose) can be found.They were initially park animals that later escaped and reestablished themselves in the wild.
Historically, Europe's deer species shared their deciduous forest habitat with other herbivores, such as the extinct tarpan (forest horse), extinct aurochs (forest ox), and the endangered wisent (European bison).
The majority of large deer species inhabit temperate mixed deciduous forest, mountain mixed coniferous forest, tropical seasonal/dry forest, and savanna habitats around the world.
Clearing open areas within forests to some extent may actually benefit deer populations by exposing the understory and allowing the types of grasses, weeds, and herbs to grow that deer like to eat.
Some deer have a circumpolar distribution in both North America and Eurasia.
Examples include the caribou that live in Arctic tundra and taiga (boreal forests) and moose that inhabit taiga and adjacent areas.
However, many national parks and protected reserves in Europe do have populations of red deer, roe deer, and fallow deer.